Latest Cretaceous "A(2)-type" granites in the Sakarya Zone, NE Turkey: Partial melting of mafic lower crust in response to roll-back of Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere

Karsli O., AYDIN F., UYSAL İ., DOKUZ A., Kumral M., Kandemir R., ...More

LITHOS, vol.302, pp.312-328, 2018 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 302
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.lithos.2017.12.025
  • Journal Name: LITHOS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.312-328
  • Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Affiliated: Yes


An integrated study of comprehensive geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data was undertaken for the A-type Topcam pluton that intruded within the Sakarya Zone (NE Turkey) with the aims of elucidating its origin and tectonic significance and gaining new insights into the generation of aluminous A-type granites. New LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb crystallization ages of 72 and 73 Ma indicate emplacement in the Late Cretaceous time, just after extensive metaluminous I-type magmatism in the area. The pluton consists mainly of alkali feldspar, quartz, plagioclase, amphibole, and biotite with accessory minerals such as magnetite, apatite, and zircon. The outcrop is composed of granite, syenite, monzonite, and quartz monzonite and possesses a wide range of SiO2 content (57-70 wt%) with elevated Ga/Al ratios and low Mg# (mostly <43). The pluton is metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, with aluminium saturation index (ASI) (molar Al2O3/[CaO + K2O + Na2O]) values of 0.82 to 1.18, and belongs to the shoshonitic and ultra-potassic series. All the samples exhibit relative enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREE) and significant negative Eu (Eu/Eu* = 0.31 to 0.86) anomalies on the chondrite-normalized REE diagram. The rocks are enriched in some large ion lithophile elements (e.g., Rb, Th and Ba), and spidergrams show a relative depletion in Nb, Ti, and Sr. The granitic rocks of the pluton have identical Sr-87/Sr-86((i)) ratios ranging from 0.70518 to 0.70716, relatively low epsilon(Nd) (t) values varying from -5.5 to -0.4, and T-DM ages (0.82-1.19 Ga). In situ zircon analyses show that the rocks have variable negative and positive epsilon(Hf) (t) values (-5.5 to 5.9) and Hf two-stage model ages (742 to 1468 Ma), which are indicative of minor addition of juvenile material. Sr-Nd isotope modelling suggests mixing of 70-90% of lower crustal-derived melt with similar to 10-30% of mantle-derived melt at lower crust depths. The heat source for partial melting is provided by upwelling of hot asthenosphere triggered by slab roll-back events. Geochemical and isotopic data reveal that metaluminous A(2)-type granites were derived from partial melting of the Paleozoic lower continental crust dominated by mafic rocks in amphibolitic composition, with minor input of subcontinental lithospheric mantle-derived magma followed by subsequent limited fractional crystallization to generate a variety of rock types. From integrating all available data with the regional tectonic evolution in the Sakarya Zone and adjacent regions, we attribute generation of aluminous A(2)-type granites to a back-arc extension in the subduction zone, which is induced by the roll-back of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic slab around 72 Ma. Consequently, we conclude that these A(2)-type granites were related to intensive extension tectonic, which peaked during the late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) in response to the roll-back of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic slab, which is indicative of the final-stage subduction-related magmatism in the Sakarya Zone. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.