The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of curcumin on acute lung injury induced by intestinal ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R). A total of 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups: sham, I/R, and I/R + curcumin; each group contains 10 animals. Sham group animals underwent laparotomy without I/R injury. After I/R groups animals underwent laparotomy, 1 h of superior mesenteric artery ligation were followed by 1 h of reperfusion. In the curcumin group, 3 days before I/R, curcumin (100 mg/kg) was administered by gastric gavage. All animals were killed at the end of reperfusion and lung tissue samples were obtained for biochemical and histopathological investigation in all groups. To date, no more biochemical and histopathological changes on intestinal I/R injury in rats by curcumin treatment have been reported. Curcumin treatment significantly decreased the elevated tissue malondialdehyde levels and increased reduced superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activities in lung tissue samples. Intestinal I/R caused severe histopathological injury including oedema, haemorrhage, increased thickness of the alveolar wall, and infiltration of inflammatory cells into alveolar spaces. Curcumin treatment significantly attenuated the severity of intestinal I/R injury. Furthermore, there is a significant reduction in the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase and increase in the expression of surfactant protein D in lung tissue of acute lung injury induced by intestinal I/R with curcumin therapy. It was concluded that curcumin treatment may have beneficial effects in acute lung injury, and therefore has potential for clinical use.