Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare pulmonary disease characterised by alveolar accumulation of surfactant composed of proteins and lipids. Three main categories of PAP have been defined depending on the aetiology: primer/idiopathic, neonatal/congenital, secondary and exogenous/environmental exposure. Radiologically diffuse ground glass opacities, interlobular and intralobular septal thickening is seen. Although open lung biopsy is accepted as the gold standard in diagnosis, it can be diagnosed by showing bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid with a milky appearance and periodic acid-schiff (PAS) positive globules in biopsy with clinical and radiological findings. Theraphy for PAP are supportive care (oxygen), total lung lavage, inhale/subcutaneous granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), rituximab, plasmapheresis, lung transplantation. We report a case of PAP presented with cough and shortness of breath, diagnosed with BAL and transbronchial lung biopsy, treated by total lung lavage by reviewing literature.