This study investigates the time-dependent rheological behavior of cemented paste backfill (CPB) that contains alkali-activated slag (AAS) as a binder. Rheological measurements with the controlled shear strain method have been conducted on various AAS-CPB samples with different binder contents, silicate modulus (Ms: SiO2/Na2O molar ratio), fineness of slag and curing temperatures. The Bingham model afforded a good fit to all of the CPB mixtures. The results show that AAS-CPB samples with high binder content demonstrate a more rapid rate of gain in yield stress and plastic viscosity. AAS-CPB also shows better rheological behavior than CPB samples made up of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) at identical binder contents. It is found that increasing Ms yields lower yield stress and plastic viscosity and the rate of gain in these parameters. Increases in the fineness of slag has an adverse effect on rheological behavior of AAS-CPB. The rheological behavior of both OPC- and AAS-CPB samples is also strongly enhanced at higher temperatures. AAS-CPB samples are found to be more sensitive to the variation in curing temperatures than OPC-CPB samples with respect to the rate of gain in yield stress and plastic viscosity. As a result, the findings of this study will contribute to well understand the flow and transport features of fresh CPB mixtures under various conditions and their changes with time.