Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin D deficiency on the mandibular bone structure by fractal analysis and panoramic morphometric indices. Methods Ninety participants were divided into three groups as 30 individuals with severe vitamin D deficiency, 30 individuals with vitamin D deficiency, and 30 individuals with vitamin D sufficiency. Fractal dimension analysis (FD), panoramic mandibular index (PMI), mandibular cortical index (MCI), and mandibular cortical thickness measurement (CTM) were evaluated on panoramic radiographs. Results FD values of the patients with vitamin D deficiency were found to be statistically lower than the patients with vitamin D sufficiency (p < 0.05). FD value of supracortical area above the angulus mandible (FD2) in patients with severe vitamin D deficiency was significantly lower than FD values (p = 0.002). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in the CTM (p > 0.05). PMI was significantly lower in patients with severe vitamin D deficiency (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference in MCI values between the groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency causes a decrease in bone mineral density in the mandible, and an increase in alveolar porosity. FD analysis and radiomorphometric indices in panoramic radiographs can be used to assess osteoporotic changes in patients with vitamin D deficiency.