An analysis of human error and reliability in the operation of fixed CO2 systems on cargo ships using HEART Dempster-Shafer evidence theory approach


OCEAN ENGINEERING, vol.286, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 286
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2023.115686
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, Environment Index, ICONDA Bibliographic, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Human reliability, HEART, D-S evidence theory, Fixed CO 2 fire extinguishing system, Maritime safety, Human error, Safety operation
  • Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Affiliated: Yes


CO2 fixed fire extinguishing system activation accidents may occur as a result of unintentional system activation or human error. Crew members present in the area could suffer serious consequences, including death, if CO2 gas is released into a protected compartment such as the engine room, CO2 room, or cargo area. It is therefore crucial to investigate and address the causes of such accidents. The use of Dempster-Shafer (D-S) theory and the Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) to the Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) of CO2 fixed fire extinguishing system activation accidents is discussed in this study. On the one hand, D-S theory allows for uncertainty-based reasoning and can be extremely advantageous, especially when analysing complex systems where there are many potential challenges. On the other hand, HEART is an organised method to examine and reduce human error in high-risk systems. Together, these techniques provide a powerful tool for identifying and addressing the underlying causes of CO2 fixed fire extinguishing system activation accidents. The study revealed that the total human error probability (HEP) for the CO2 fixed fire extinguishing system was 3.10E-01 and the reliability of human performance for the given process was 6.90E-01. The results of this paper highlight many factors such as equipment failure, inadequate training, and poor maintenance practices, as well as factors contributing to the risk of accidental system activation. By addressing these factors, the probability of CO2-fixed fire suppression system activation accidents can be significantly reduced.