Background Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a method applied to build a 3D object of any shape from a digital model, and it provides crucial advantages especially for transferring patient-specific designs to clinical settings. The main purpose of this study is to introduce the newly designed complex airway stent models that are created through mathematical functions and manufactured with 3D printing for implementation in real life. Methods A mathematical modeling software (MathMod) was used to design five different airway stents. The highly porous structures with designated scales were fabricated by utilizing a stereolithography-based 3D printing technology. The fine details in the microstructure of 3D printed parts were observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The mechanical properties of airway stents with various designs and porosity were compared by compression test. Results The outputs of the mathematical modeling software were successfully converted into 3D printable files and airway stents with a porosity of more than 85% were 3D printed. SEM images revealed the layered topography of high-resolution 3D printed parts. Compression tests have shown that the mathematical function-based design offers the opportunity to adjust the mechanical strength of airway stents without changing the material or manufacturing method. Conclusions A novel approach, which includes mathematical function-based design and 3D printing technology, is proposed in this study for the fabrication of airway stents as a promising tool for future treatments of central airway pathologies.