Objectives To evaluate the relation between taurodontism and C-shaped configuration, as well as the prevalence and classification according to sex, left/right position, and arc length in the mandibular premolar and molar teeth using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods The presence of taurodontism and C-shaped configuration were evaluated using CBCT scans and classified by two independent radiologists. The sex, location in the jaw (left-right), and mandibular arc length measurements were recorded. The Chi-square test was used to determine the presence of taurodontism and C-shape configuration according to sex, left/right location, and independent-samplettests were used to assess the relation between the arc length. Results The prevalence of taurodontism was significantly higher in the female population, whereas the C-shaped configuration was more frequent in males (p < 0.05). In both sexes, the most common type was hypotaurodont (7.5%). In the molars, the prevalence was significantly higher in second molars, and the most common C-shaped configuration type was C3 (39.3%). The prevalence was significantly higher in the first premolar, with C2 (22.4%) being the most frequent type in the premolars (p < 0.05). The arc length and location in the jaw were not significantly affected (p > 0.05). Conclusions A high correlation was revealed between taurodontism and complicated C-shape canal configurations. Practitioners should be very careful about the presence of C-shape morphology in taurodontism treatment, and various types of C-shaped morphology ranging from coronal to the apical direction.