Sexual size and shape dimorphism in Turkish common toads (Bufo bufo Linnaeus 1758)


DURSUN C. , GÜL S. , ÖZDEMİR N.

ANATOMICAL RECORD-ADVANCES IN INTEGRATIVE ANATOMY AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/ar.24801
  • Title of Journal : ANATOMICAL RECORD-ADVANCES IN INTEGRATIVE ANATOMY AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY
  • Keywords: Amphibia, Anura, morphometry, principal component analysis, statistics, FEMALE MATE CHOICE, BODY-SIZE, GEOGRAPHIC-VARIATION, POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS, NATURAL-SELECTION, ANURA, EVOLUTION, TRAITS, FROG, DIET

Abstract

Differences in male and female traits (sexual dimorphism [SD]) are widespread in animals. Dimorphism in morphological characters evolves under the effect of environmental and genetic factors and is shaped by natural and sexual selection. In this study, intersexual differences in size and shape in common toad, Bufo bufo, populations in Turkey were investigated. For this, linear measurements of 27 body-related morphometric characters in a sample of 140 individuals (70 males and 70 females) were compiled. The data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical methods. The results show SD in body size with females having larger body size, a trait related with fecundity and thus probably under sexual selection. Body shape differences, which are associated with head width and dorsal head, are likely to prey size. Male-biased differences observed in nasal characters and tympanum may also be associated with sexual selection (male-male competition). Our findings are consistent with previous studies of major of Anura and support a role for selection pressures acting differentially upon individuals from both sexes, resulting in the evolution of sexually dimorphic traits.