History Education in Turkey: Tensions between National and Global Views

Onal G., Pala Ç.

EUROPEAN EDUCATION, vol.54, no.3-4, pp.157-170, 2022 (ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 54 Issue: 3-4
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/10564934.2023.2167091
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, IBZ Online, EBSCO Education Source, Education Abstracts, Educational research abstracts (ERA), ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), MLA - Modern Language Association Database, Public Affairs Index
  • Page Numbers: pp.157-170
  • Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Affiliated: No


This article analyses the extent to which history education (HE) in Turkey adheres to the HE principles proposed by the Council of Europe. A compulsory history textbook is analyzed in detail. The analysis finds an understanding of HE that marginalizes minorities due to nationalist and militarist content. The Ataturk's Principles and History of Reforms (APHR) course also fail to include controversial historical issues and does not adopt a multiperspective approach. Thus, a vital question has emerged: Is the APHR a course that serves to develop universal values such as respect for differences, a culture of inclusion, and support for democracy, or does it continue to be used solely as a tool for reproducing national values or more precisely, the dominant groups' values? This question reveals the significance of developing a HE curriculum in Turkey and elsewhere that reflects current realities and also supports intercultural dialogue.