Should chemical tankers' tank cleaning waters be banned from discharging into the sea?


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Sanlier S.

TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PART D-TRANSPORT AND ENVIRONMENT, cilt.58, ss.14-21, 2018 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 58
  • Basım Tarihi: 2018
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1016/j.trd.2017.11.005
  • Dergi Adı: TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PART D-TRANSPORT AND ENVIRONMENT
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.14-21

Özet

Entering of chemical substances into aquatic environment occurs either by involuntary accidents or discharging of chemical wastes resulting from tank washing operations of tankers carrying chemicals. MARPOL 73/78 Convention strict regulations on discharging of chemical residues left in their tanks to the sea, but permits the discharging of such residues provided certain conditions are met. In the present study; the period from 1996 to 2016 is examined and the number of new tankers participating in the chemical tanker fleet and the distribution of these tankers according to dwt tonnage is shown. The tanker fleet which consisted of 1.882 ships in 1966 reached 3.923 units in 2016. Accordingly, the volume of chemical merchandise carried by sea was 132 million tons in 1996, but it reached 287 million tons in 2016. According to the order books, it is understood that these figures will increase even more. The increase in the number of tankers and the growth of the capacities means that more chemical substances are transported at the same time and the tonnage of the chemical waste discharged to the sea is also on increase. Based on the scientific background which proves that chemicals cause biological accumulation and acute and chronic toxicity on aquatic life, and the results of chemical tanker development over the last 20 years that has been presented; It is necessary for maritime authorities to reconsider the legal arrangements for allowing chemical tankers to discharge chemical wastes from tank washing waters to the sea.

Entering of chemical substances into aquatic environment occurs either by involuntary accidents or discharging of chemical wastes resulting from tank washing operations of tankers carrying chemicals. MARPOL 73/78 Convention strict regulations on discharging of chemical residues left in their tanks to the sea, but permits the discharging of such residues provided certain conditions are met. In the present study; the period from 1996 to 2016 is examined and the number of new tankers participating in the chemical tanker fleet and the distribution of these tankers according to dwt tonnage is shown. The tanker fleet which consisted of 1.882 ships in 1966 reached 3.923 units in 2016. Accordingly, the volume of chemical merchandise carried by sea was 132 million tons in 1996, but it reached 287 million tons in 2016. According to the order books, it is un-derstood that these figures will increase even more. The increase in the number of tankers and the growth of the capacities means that more chemical substances are transported at the same time and the tonnage of the chemical waste discharged to the sea is also on increase. Based on the scientific background which proves that chemicals cause biological accumulation and acute and chronic toxicity on aquatic life, and the results of chemical tanker development over the last 20 years that has been presented; It is necessary for maritime authorities to reconsider the legal arrangements for allowing chemical tankers to discharge chemical wastes from tank washing waters to the sea.