Species of the cyprinid genus Gobio Cuvier, 1816 are widely distributed in freshwater lakes and rivers in Turkey, which is a hotspot for freshwater fish diversity and endemism. The mitochondrial 16S, coxI and cytb genes were sequenced for 217 individuals representing 15 species of Gobio from Turkey. A total of 23 haplotypes were identified for each mitochondrial gene. The genetic distance matrices show that Turkish Gobio species are clustered into three groups (northwestern, central and northeastern Anatolia). Phylogenetic trees constructed with combined dataset by using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods revealed that the Turkish Gobio species belongs to three well-supported groups in accordance with their geographic distribution: Group I comprises species found in Central Anatolia, Group II species ranging from eastern Thrace to western Anatolia (northwestern Group) and Group III contains only one species from Western Transcaucasia (northeastern Group). The estimated divergence times between the three Gobio groups, calculated using a conventional 1% rate of mutation for a fish mitochondrial cytb gene per million years, coincide with the late Miocene period in which the tectonic uplift of Anatolia and global climate fluctuations occurred. The relatively low genetic distance between Gobio species in the Turkish Lake District indicate that they are not good species.