Chemical profiling and antimicrobial effect of Anatolian honey bee venom

Sonmez E., Kekecoglu M., Bozdeveci A., Karaoglu S. A.

TOXICON, vol.15, no.213, pp.1-6, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 15 Issue: 213
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2022.04.006
  • Journal Name: TOXICON
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-6
  • Keywords: Anatolian honey bee venom, Antimicrobial activity, HPLC, MIC, APIS-MELLIFERA VENOM, PHOSPHOLIPASE A(2), IN-VITRO, MELITTIN, ACNE, PROPERTY, PAIN
  • Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Affiliated: Yes


Due to increasing antibiotic resistance, there is an urgent need to find new antibiotic alternatives or supporters for the treatment of disease-causing pathogens. For this reason the aim of the study was examine the antimicrobial and antifungal activity of Anatolian (Anadolu) honey bee venom (HBV) against Gram-positive and Gramnegative bacteria and yeast-like fungi. At first step chemical analyses of HBV was performed by HPLC method. According to the results of HPLC analysis, we obtained a good separation of apamine, phospholipase A2 and melittin with the ratio of 1.83%, 20.60% and 57.62% respectively. The antimicrobial and antifungal activity of the Anatolian HBV was tested against 9 Gram (+), 7 Gram (-), 1 acid-alcohol-resistant and 3 yeast fungi. First, the activity of the Anatolian HBV sample against these microorganisms was determined by the agar well diffusion method, then their zones were measured. The microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the antimicrobial activity tests. The results of MIC values were varied from 3.06 mu g/mL to 50 mu g/mL for the tested microorganisms. It was found that Mycobacterium smegmatis and Streptococcus pyogenes were the most susceptible bacteria (3.06 mu g/mL), followed by Vibrio sp., Aeromonas sobria, Enterococcus faecalis, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and B. subtilis with a MIC concentration of 6.125 mu g/mL. These findings strongly suggest that Anatolian HBV will be developed as a new antibacterial-antifungal drug against Gram-positive, Gram negative and antibiotic-resistant bacteria and yeast like fungi. However, further research is required to evaluate their in vivo efficacy and safe and effective delivery methods for their therapeutic use.