This study was conducted (i) to explore variations in the foliar nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) resorption and nutrient dynamics of linden along with altitudinal gradient and during one growing season and their relationships with nutrient contents and (ii) to identify how the soil factors affect foliar N and P resorption. We measured nitrogen (N), carbon (C), sulphur (S), phosphorus (P) concentrations and SLA in both green and senescent leaves of the same individuals. We compared the resorption proficiency (RP) and efficiency (RE) of N and P, SLA values, N, C, S and P dynamics in plant leaves, besides comparing N and P concentrations in soils for different altitudes during the growing season and we investigated impacts of climate, soil and altitudinal variations. The N, C, S and P concentrations increase with increasing altitude. The N, C, S and P levels in green leaves were higher than those in senesced leaves. On average, the leaf N-RE and PRE were 42 and 46%, respectively; and the corresponding N-RP and P-RP were 0.6 and 0.54%, respectively. N-RE and P-RE increase and N-RP and P-RP decrease with increasing altitude. The SLA, soil nutrient contents and pH significantly change along with the altitudinal gradient and during the growing season. These results support that plants growing in areas with high altitude or in areas with low soil N and P concentrations should have lower N-RP and P-RP and higher N-RE and PRE. Our finding can improve the understanding of variations in N and P resorption and their response to global change.