In this study, xanthine oxidase (XO), malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and glutathione (GSH) levels in the ovarian tissues of rats during the development of ischemia and postischemia-induced reperfusion were investigated, and the effect of ATP on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) damage was biochemically and histopathologically examined. The results of the biochemical analyses demonstrated that ATP significantly reduced the level of XO and MDA and increased the amount of GSH in both ischemia and I/R-applied ovarian tissue at the doses administered. Furthermore, ATP significantly suppressed the increase in MPO activity that occurred following the application of post ischemia reperfusion in the ovarian tissue. The biochemical results obtained in the present study coincide with the histological findings. The severity of the pathological findings, such as dilatation, congestion, haemorrhage, oedema and polymorphonuclear nuclear leukocytes (PMNLs), increased in parallel with the increase observed in the products of XO metabolism. In conclusion, exogenously applied ATP prevented I/R damage by reducing the formation of XO in ischemic ovarian tissue.