Hydrazinyl thiazole linked indenoquinoxaline hybrids: Potential leads to treat hyperglycemia and oxidative stress; Multistep synthesis, alpha-amylase, and antioxidant activities

Hameed S., Khan K. M. , Salar U., Özil M., Baltaş N., Saleem F., ...More

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES, vol.221, pp.1294-1312, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 221
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.09.102
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, INSPEC, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.1294-1312
  • Keywords: Quinoxaline, Synthesis, alpha-Amylase, alpha-Glucosidase, Antioxidant, Enzyme inhibition, Molecular docking, IN-VITRO, QUINOXALINE DERIVATIVES, GLUCOSIDASE INHIBITORS, ENZYMES
  • Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Affiliated: Yes


A library of hydrazinyl thiazole-linked indenoquinoxaline hybrids 1-36 were synthesized via a multistep reaction scheme. All synthesized compounds were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques including EI-MS (electron ionization mass spectrometry) and 1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy). Compounds 1-36 were evaluated for their inhibitory potential against alpha-amylase, and alpha-glucosidase enzymes. Among thirty-six, compounds 2, 9, 10, 13, 15, 17, 21, 22, 31, and 36 showed excellent inhibition against alpha-amylase (IC50 = 0.3-76.6 mu M) and alpha-glucosidase (IC50 = 1.1-92.2 mu M). Results were compared to the standard acarbose (IC50 = 13.5 +/- 0.2 mu M). All compounds were also evaluated for their DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and compounds 2, 9, 10, 17, 21, 31, and 36 showed (SC50 = 7.58-125.86 mu M) as compared to the standard ascorbic acid (SC50 = 21.50 +/- 0.18 mu M). Among this library, compounds 9 and 10 with a hydroxy group on the phenyl rings and thiosemicarbazide bearing intermediate 21 were identified as the most potent inhibitors against alpha-amylase, and alpha-glucosidase enzymes. The remaining compounds were found to be moderately active. The molecular docking studies were conducted to understand the binding mode of active inhibitors and kinetic studies of the active compounds followed competitive modes of inhibition.