Contemporary Evaporative Cooling System with Indirect Interaction in Construction Implementations: A Theoretical Exploration

Mert Cüce A. P., Cüce E., Riffat S.

BUILDINGS (BASEL), vol.14, no.4, pp.994, 2024 (SCI-Expanded)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/buildings14040994
  • Journal Name: BUILDINGS (BASEL)
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Communication Abstracts, INSPEC, Metadex, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.994
  • Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Affiliated: Yes


The construction sector, including in developed countries, plays a notable part in the overall energy consumption worldwide, being responsible for 40% of it. In addition to this, heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems constitute the largest share in this sector, accounting for 40% of energy usage in construction and 16% globally. To address this, stringent rules and performance measures are essential to reduce energy consumption. This study focuses on mathematical optimisation modelling to enhance the performance of indirect-contact evaporative cooling systems (ICESs), a topic with a significant gap in the literature. This modelling is highly comprehensive, covering various aspects: (1) analysing the impact of the water-spraying unit (WSU) size, working air (WA) velocity and hydraulic diameter (Dh) on the evaporated water vapour (EWV) amount; (2) evaluating temperature and humidity distribution for a range of temperatures without considering humidity at the outlet of the WSU, (3) presenting theoretical calculations of outdoor temperature (Tout) and humidity with a constant WSU size and air mass flow rate (MFR), (4) examining the combined effect of the WA MFR and relative humidity (ϕ) on Tout and (5) investigating how Tout influences the indoor environment’s humidity. The study incorporates an extensive optimisation analysis. The findings indicate that the model could contribute to the development of future low-carbon houses, considering factors such as the impact of Tout on indoor ϕ, the importance of low air velocity for achieving a low air temperature, the positive effects of Dh on outdoor air and the necessity of a WSU with a size of at least 8 m for adiabatic saturation.