The present study was set to identify the members of An. maculipennis complex, which includes effective malaria vectors, throughout the Mediterranean region of Turkey using the second internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA (rDNA-ITS2) sequences from 200 specimens. Resulting sequences of this complex from the Mediterranean region revealed the presence of three species belonging to the An. maculipennis complex, namely An. sacharovi, An. maculipennis s.s. and An. melanoon. The lengths of ITS2 region were 284, 294 and 306 bp in length for An. maculipennis s.s., An. melanoon and An. sacharovi respectively. While no sequence divergence was observed within any species, An. sacharovi was the most distantly related species from An. maculipennis s.s. and An. melanoon with a sequence divergence of 15.1% and 15.4%, respectively. While An. melanoon was the rare species, An. maculipennis s.s., was the most abundant and An. sacharovi was the most wide spread one. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.