This study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of Wels catfish Silurus glanis L. 1758 in Turkey using squences of the mitochondrial DNA control region The 887-bp fragment of D-loop was aligned for 112 S. glanis individuals from ten wild populations in Turkey, defined by 29 polymorphic sites comprising 16 haplotypes. The low haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity within each population ranged from 0.000 to 0.378 and from 0.0000 to 0.0045, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance showed significant genetic differentiation among ten populations (F-ST =0.940; P<0.01). AMOVA revealed that the most of genetic variation was found between Thrace and Anatolia clades (74,07 %). The phylogenetic trees and haplotype network topologies were consistent with the results of AMOVA analysis. The non-significant negative Tajima's D (-0.875 P<0.05) and Fu's Fs (-0.381, P<0.02) values and mismatch distribution for S. glanis populations indicated no evidence for changes in population size. Furthermore, goodness-of-fit of the observed versus the theoretical mismatch distribution tested the sum of squared deviation (SSD; 0.00308, P>0.05), Harpending's raggedness index (Hri; 0,300, P>0.05) and Ramos-Onsins & Rozas (R2; 0,0771, P>0.05), supporting population neutrality.