Generation of Istanbul road data set using Google Map API for deep learning-based segmentation

Öztürk O., Işık M. S., Sarıtürk B., Şeker D. Z.

International Journal of Remote Sensing, vol.43, no.8, pp.2793-2812, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 43 Issue: 8
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/01431161.2022.2068989
  • Journal Name: International Journal of Remote Sensing
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Artic & Antarctic Regions, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, Environment Index, Geobase, INSPEC, Metadex, Pollution Abstracts, Public Affairs Index, Veterinary Science Database, DIALNET, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.2793-2812
  • Keywords: deep learning, Deep Residual U-Net, Google Map Static API, Istanbul road data set, road segmentation
  • Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Affiliated: No


Deep learning architectures are widely used for road segmentation studies. Data sets reflect the characteristics of the study region in which they are generated. The models that are trained with the data sets are unable to accurately forecast the region outside the area covered by the data sets. That is why local data sets must be generated to meet the requirements of navigation, military activities, urban planning and health management applications where road data are indispensable. In this study, satellite images and corresponding mask images of Istanbul city at different zoom levels were generated via Google Map Platform. Trained models were produced using Deep Residual U-Net. This study consists of three parts. The first part includes training each zoom level, from 14 to 17, separately. The recall statistics of models were found as 95%, 94%, 92% and 86%, and corresponding F1-Score statistics were calculated as 95%, 95%, 92% and 86%, respectively. Next, consecutive training with priory weight and (Formula presented.) regularization on satellite images were tested to increase the prediction results. The consecutive model and (Formula presented.) regularization methods resulted in an increase in both recall and F1-Score by 2−3%. In the third part, a new model was generated by combining all images which were produced at different levels. The combined model was found successful for the prediction of roads in all zoom levels. Finally, the performance of these models trained with the Istanbul data set was compared with well-known DeepGlobe and Massachusetts road data sets. Hence, this study illustrated that generating all data sets specifically for the area of interest is crucial.