Objective Cesarean sections (CS) under spinal anesthesia may lead to newly developed low back pain (LBP) after anesthesia. The cause of this pain is still unknown. This subject was investigated. Methods The persistent LBP after the section was retrospectively analyzed in patients who were operated on under spinal or general anesthesia between January 1, 2018, and January 1, 2020. Result General anesthesia was used in 52 women, but 251 women were operated on under spinal anesthesia. Newly developed persistent LBP was detected in 57 (18,8%) of a total of 303 patients. Of those patients with LBP, general anesthesia was used in 14 of 52 (26,9%) patients, but 43 of 251 (17.1%) patients received spinal anesthesia. Baby weight after CS was the only variable associated with persistent LBP after 3 and 6 months (P < 0.05) in multiple logistic regression analysis. Patient age and anesthesia type were not associated with persistent LBP (P > 0.05). Conclusion This study shows anesthesia type as spinal or general was not associated with increased persistent LBP. Performing more spinal than general anesthesia in the cesarean section may be false data about the increased rate of LBP after CS.