BIOLOGICAL TRACE ELEMENT RESEARCH, vol.170, no.2, pp.373-381, 2016 (SCI-Expanded)
Growing evidence has been reported on adriamycin (ADR) hepatotoxicity in literature. Hepatotoxicity caused by the use of drugs has a serious undesirable effect in the cure of cancer patients that needs to be eliminated. The exact mechanism of ADR on non-cancerous tissue still remains to be a mystery. The zeolite (clinoptilolite) minerals form a complex group of aluminosilicates that often occur as accessory minerals in intermediate and basic rocks. In light of this information, we investigated the possible anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of clinoptilolite in ADR that is inducing the toxicity in primary liver cell culture. Primary liver cell culture from rat was used in the study. We had three experiment groups including the following: (1) cells treated only with 50 mu M ADR for 24 h, (2) cells treated with the 50 mu M ADR for 24 h and then treated with 10(-4) M zeolite for 1 h, and (3) cells were incubated with 50 mu M ADR for 24 h and then incubated with 10(-4) M zeolite for 24 h to test its long-term effects. After that, western blotting was performed in order to evaluate protein expression levels of several inflammation markers including IL-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B), and immunohistochemistry was carried out to detect apoptosis in liver cell culture. Also, TdT-dUTP Terminal Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) method was used for detecting apoptosis. We found elevated levels of inflammatory protein and apoptotic markers in ADR-administered cells (p < 0.05). Inflammatory and apoptotic markers decreased significantly after treated with zeolite (p < 0.05). The present study was pointed out that ADR causes hepatotoxicity via apoptosis and/or inflammation processes resulting from initiator NF-kappa B and TNF which causes proinflammatory mediators such as IL-1 beta. Elevation of inflammation might give rise to trigger apoptosis. Clinoptilolite counteracted the apoptosis and inflammation induced by ADR arising from the decrease in NF-kappa B, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta protein levels.