P>This study aimed to determine the fat content and fatty acid (FA) composition of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, Linnaeus, 1758) in their edible muscle, liver and gonad during the catching season (between September 2008 and April 2009) in The Black Sea Region, Turkey. The most abundant FAs in all samples were palmitic acid (ranged as 15.93-27.34%) amongst saturated fatty acids (SFAs), oleic acid (10.72-21.37%) amongst monounsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (5.28-14.11%) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (9.83-22.34%) amongst polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). At the beginning of winter, significant increase in edible muscle and liver's PUFAs and Sigma n3/Sigma n6 were observed (P < 0.05). The highest contents of Sigma PUFAs for muscle and liver were observed in January as 38.52% and 38.82%, respectively, while highest n3/n6 ratios were found in April as 10.13% for muscle and in January for liver samples as 9.15%. This study indicates that anchovy is a good nutritional source for human consumption with high contents of omega 3 fatty acids, particularly during winter. In November, about 130 g of anchovy edible meat is found to be in the satisfactory level for EPA + DHA according to the recommended weekly requirement.