Medullary thyroid carcinomas display cytologic and architectural features that can simulate various primary and metastatic neoplasms. PAX8 immunoexpression in neuroendocrine neoplasms yielded antibody-dependent findings. Since the data regarding the expression profile of monoclonal PAX8 (MRQ-50) antibody is limited in large series of medullary thyroid carcinomas, this study investigated the expression profile of PAX8 (MRQ-50) in a series of 45 medullary thyroid carcinomas. PAX8 (MRQ-50) expression was noted in the thyroid follicular epithelial cells surrounding the tumor and was negative in all medullary thyroid carcinomas. In addition, twenty medullary thyroid carcinomas showed scattered entrapped thyroid follicular epithelial cells at the periphery of the tumor. Entrapped follicular epithelial cells were positive for PAX8 and thyroglobulin, and were negative for monoclonal CEA and calcitonin. A panel approach combining monoclonal antibodies to transcription factors, hormones and cell-specific peptides often assist diagnosticians in the workup of the cellular origin of a neuroendocrine neoplasm. Since PAX8 immunostaining is dependent on the antibody characteristics in neuroendocrine neoplasms, pathologists should be aware of the details of the PAX8 antibody used in a particular case.