Gastric intestinal metaplasia: Long-term follow-up results


Rakıcı H. , Akdoğan R. A.

NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, vol.25, no.3, pp.315-324, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI Expanded)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 25 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Title of Journal : NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE
  • Page Numbers: pp.315-324

Abstract

Abstract

Baackground: Precancerous lesions are the most commonly cited factor in gastric cancer etiology. The sequence of events in intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis is considered to be chronic gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia (IM), dysplasia, and carcinoma, respectively. Early diagnosis and treatment of advanced precursor lesions and gastric cancer is possible by identifying and monitoring patients with such premalignant lesions.

Aim: In our study, we aimed to evaluate the long-term follow-up results of intestinal metaplasia in our hospital and the rate of progression to malignancy by comparing these patients with patients who have undergone gastroscopy without a diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia.

Material and method: One hundred and fifty-six followed-up patients out of 700 between the ages of 18 and 85 who were admitted to our hospital between 2009 and 2019, who were diagnosed with IM by pathological examination from biopsy material, and 150 patients who were not diagnosed with IM between 2009 and 2011 were included. The results of the cases were evaluated first retrospectively; then, the patients who were invited for control and underwent endoscopy were evaluated prospectively. IM and control groups were compared in terms of dysplasia and gastric cancer development. In addition, the IM group was compared in terms of 5 and 10 years of follow-up, extensive or local involvement, and complete and incomplete involvement in terms of dysplasia and cancer development.

Results: The follow-up period of the patients ranged from 1 to 10 years, and the mean follow-up interval was 4.2 ± 2.8 (min: 1; max: 10) years. Age, gender, and pathology results of the patients were examined in terms of IM type, localization of IM, pathology accompanying IM, and presence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and compared with the control group. While gastric carcinoma was detected in three of 156 patients in the IM group, gastric carcinoma was not detected in the follow-up of 150 patients in the control group. IM was most common in the antrum. Incomplete IM was detected in 89 patients, and complete IM in 69 patients. While two of the three patients with gastric carcinoma were localized to the antrum, one patient had incomplete-type IM and two patients had complete-type IM, and Hp was positive in two patients. While dysplasia was detected in nine of the patients diagnosed with IM, it was detected in two patients in the control group. A statistically significant difference was found between the IM and control groups in terms of dysplasia positivity (p = 0.037). On the other hand, no statistically significant difference was found between the IM and control groups in terms of age-group, gender, follow-up time group, and Hp positivity (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference between those who were followed up for 5 and 10 years in the IM group in terms of dysplasia and cancer development.

Conclusion: Therefore, it is considered that patients with intestinal metaplasia may be followed up at longer intervals, except for patients with race, ethnicity, incomplete type, extensive involvement, and a family history of gastric cancer.

Keywords: Dysplasia; follow-up; gastric cancer; intestinal metaplasia.

Abstract

Baackground: Precancerous lesions are the most commonly cited factor in gastric cancer etiology. The sequence of events in intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis is considered to be chronic gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia (IM), dysplasia, and carcinoma, respectively. Early diagnosis and treatment of advanced precursor lesions and gastric cancer is possible by identifying and monitoring patients with such premalignant lesions.

Aim: In our study, we aimed to evaluate the long-term follow-up results of intestinal metaplasia in our hospital and the rate of progression to malignancy by comparing these patients with patients who have undergone gastroscopy without a diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia.

Material and method: One hundred and fifty-six followed-up patients out of 700 between the ages of 18 and 85 who were admitted to our hospital between 2009 and 2019, who were diagnosed with IM by pathological examination from biopsy material, and 150 patients who were not diagnosed with IM between 2009 and 2011 were included. The results of the cases were evaluated first retrospectively; then, the patients who were invited for control and underwent endoscopy were evaluated prospectively. IM and control groups were compared in terms of dysplasia and gastric cancer development. In addition, the IM group was compared in terms of 5 and 10 years of follow-up, extensive or local involvement, and complete and incomplete involvement in terms of dysplasia and cancer development.

Results: The follow-up period of the patients ranged from 1 to 10 years, and the mean follow-up interval was 4.2 ± 2.8 (min: 1; max: 10) years. Age, gender, and pathology results of the patients were examined in terms of IM type, localization of IM, pathology accompanying IM, and presence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and compared with the control group. While gastric carcinoma was detected in three of 156 patients in the IM group, gastric carcinoma was not detected in the follow-up of 150 patients in the control group. IM was most common in the antrum. Incomplete IM was detected in 89 patients, and complete IM in 69 patients. While two of the three patients with gastric carcinoma were localized to the antrum, one patient had incomplete-type IM and two patients had complete-type IM, and Hp was positive in two patients. While dysplasia was detected in nine of the patients diagnosed with IM, it was detected in two patients in the control group. A statistically significant difference was found between the IM and control groups in terms of dysplasia positivity (p = 0.037). On the other hand, no statistically significant difference was found between the IM and control groups in terms of age-group, gender, follow-up time group, and Hp positivity (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference between those who were followed up for 5 and 10 years in the IM group in terms of dysplasia and cancer development.

Conclusion: Therefore, it is considered that patients with intestinal metaplasia may be followed up at longer intervals, except for patients with race, ethnicity, incomplete type, extensive involvement, and a family history of gastric cancer.

Keywords: Dysplasia; follow-up; gastric cancer; intestinal metaplasia.