The aim of this study was to examine the anticancer activities and phytochemical profiles of Dicranum scoparium against HeLa cell lines. The bio-guided fractionation studies of dichloromethane extract have high antiproliferative activities. Fractions 7, 9, 19, 20 are rich source of unsaturated fatty acids, and-in the case of Fr-19 may improve the antiproliferative activities as well as increase the unsaturated fatty acid content. The effect of proliferative activities in hexane extract can be attributed to the saturated fatty acid composition of D. scoparium. The Fr-9 exhibited strong antiproliferative activity at concentrations of 100 and 50 mu g mL(-1)compared to 5-FU. The fractions of 7, 9, 19 and 20 from dichloromethane extracts exhibited antiproliferative activities at a concentration of 100 mu g mL(-1). The HPLC-TOF/MS studies gave nine compounds from the most active fraction of dichloromethane at concentrations of 250 and 100 mu g mL(-1). The lower activities were obtained from the fractions including steroid derivatives.