Risk assessment of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) exposure from bread consumption: Turkey

BAŞARAN B., ANLAR P., Oral Z. F. Y., Polat Z., Kaban G.

JOURNAL OF FOOD COMPOSITION AND ANALYSIS, vol.107, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 107
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jfca.2022.104409
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Analytical Abstracts, BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Bread composition, Food safety, GC/MS, Dietary exposure, Target hazard quotient, Carcinogenic risk, ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI, MAILLARD REACTION, 5-HYDROXYMETHYLFURFURAL FORMATION, DIETARY ACRYLAMIDE, BAKING, TEMPERATURE, HEALTH
  • Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Affiliated: Yes


Bread is a food of global importance for nutrition. Therefore, contaminants from the heat treatment of bread may be considered a potential health issue. In this study, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) and acrylamide levels were determined using HPLC and GC/MS, respectively, in 26 bread types (n = 52) widely consumed in Turkey. Then, the exposure of individuals with different demographic characteristics to 5-HMF and acrylamide was calculated, and risk assessments were performed. The 5-HMF and acrylamide levels in the samples ranged from 3.50 to 120 mg/kg and from 60.7 to 130 mu g/kg, respectively. The highest levels of 5-HMF and acrylamide were measured in the white and semi-industrial/traditional bread groups. Statistically significant differences were found between bread groups (p < 0.05). The exposure levels of 5-HMF and acrylamide in males and females between the ages of 15-18 were higher than in other age groups. The target hazard quotient (non-carcinogenic) values calculated for acrylamide exposure showed no health problem, while the carcinogenic risk values indicated potential and high levels of risk. The exposure to 5-HMF was relatively high. The results can serve as a guide for reducing exposure to 5-HMF and acrylamide through bread consumption.