Comparison of heavy metal levels and health risk assessment of different bread types marketed in Turkey


JOURNAL OF FOOD COMPOSITION AND ANALYSIS, vol.108, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 108
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jfca.2022.104443
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Analytical Abstracts, BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Bread, Heavy metals, Dietary exposure, THQ, Hazard index, ICP-MS, Food analysis, Food composition, DIETARY EXPOSURE, TRACE-ELEMENTS, MATRIX COMPOSITES, FOOD, CHROMIUM, ALUMINUM, GRAINS, RICE, IDENTIFICATION, CONTAMINATION
  • Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, the manganese (Mn), aluminum (Al), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), and mercury (Hg) levels of 60 bread samples were determined by ICP MS, all of which belong to different brands and businesses, are sold with and without packaging at national and local levels in Turkey, and then the bread types were compared statistically. Then, the heavy metal exposure arising from bread consumption of >15 year-old individuals, assessed non-carcinogenic risks, was calculated by using a deterministic model. The average Al, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb levels of all bread types were determined as 13,500 +/- 20000, 83 +/- 62, 24,200 +/- 8900, 14 +/- 14, 380 +/- 320, 3640 +/- 900, 19 +/- 11, 15 +/- 8, 0.4 +/- 0.1, and 34 +/- 29 mu g/kg, respectively. The heavy metal levels of the bread types included in the unpackaged local sales and classified as white bread group are lower than the others. Many statistically significant findings on heavy metals were obtained. The heavy metal exposure from bread consumption of >15-year-old individuals varies between <0.01 and 53.4 (mercury-manganese) mu g/kg bw day. The target hazard quotient of heavy metals is less than 1. The fact that the hazard index value is calculated greater than 1 in all bread types brings some health concerns. Considering the health risks, industrial bread consumption could be limited, but bread consumption should not be abandoned.